June 3, 2019
Authored by: Bryan Cave and John Bush
This post is the second in a two-part series concerning emerging uses and considerations involving application programming interfaces, or “APIs.”
Most retailers and other large and mid-size businesses, and even some small businesses, utilize public APIs:
- Businesses who vet their employees against a government database may be doing so through an API.
- Businesses that rely on vendors to provide data or electronic services (such as HR and payroll management) may be receiving them through APIs.
- Businesses that maintain databases associated with their website or applications, likely communicate with that database through an API.
- Businesses that provide electronic data or electronic services are likely doing so through an API. When the API license is presented as a take-it-or-leave-it agreement, the terms are often written to protect the provider from any liability for an offering from which the provider derives no direct financial benefit.
Still, regardless as to whether the license is free, prospective business licensees need to consider at least the following:
- Can the API be used for a commercial purpose?
- Is there a warranty?
- Is there a non-indemnified risk of infringing another’s IP rights?
- Does the user owe indemnity to the API provider?
- Is there a right to track how the API is used?
- What license does the API provider receive in any data given to it?
- Is there an acknowledgment of the provider’s rights to the API and its implementations?
The incentive to give a warranty for reliance on an API is reduced when the provider receives nothing for the API. Nonetheless, using an API is accompanied by risk. Just because a business receives data through an API does not mean that API was allowed to relay that data. The API could be implemented in a way that (unwittingly) permits infringement of another’s patent, copyright, trade secret, or other rights, or the API may violate other contractual rights. For example, a photo sharing site may entitle users to download photos via an API, but if a photo’s original poster was infringing another’s copyright, then the subsequent downloading of the photo by another may unwittingly expose the downloader to liability infringement.
APIs are a valuable part of ecommerce and software development. This sampling of considerations underscores the serious considerations in any API strategy by a provider or user. As a company’s provision or use of APIs increases, the company should do so cognizant of the risks and within the framework of effective API management.
There are circumstances in which a user’s content or other data will be submitted to an API or the use of the API will create data. Some API providers may fear a copyright or other claim if the user does not license the submitted content. Most such licenses, however, are broadly written to cover future contingencies, and the language may have broader ramifications than the API provider or user initially intend.
Some API providers compel their users to indemnify the provider. When such clauses are narrowed to indemnification for the user’s own conduct, they may be reasonable, but, often, the user is not well positioned to know the full scope of potential risks—and such asymmetry necessitates a closer review of the user’s indemnification risk.
A common restriction is that the API be used for non-commercial purposes. Moreover, the provider may even have a business model that charges for commercial uses of the API. Failure to abide by the requirement may subject the user to paying damages at the provider’s standard rates. If the API use was voluminous and/or over an extended period of time, the damages could create significant liability. Meanwhile, the agreement governing the API may give the provider a right to track how the API is used, potentially for the provider’s own business purposes or even to audit whether the API is used for non-commercial uses.